5. Cite it! Synthesis & Academic Honesty & In-text Citations



From the Big6 Skills PDF:

5. Synthesis
5.1 Organize from multiple sources
5.2 Present the information
o How will I organize my information?
o How should I present my information?

What will your end product look like?

  • How will you put it together?
  • Where will you keep a list of your sources?


When should you cite?

Words, quotes and ideas

The following flowchart will help you decide when you need to cite words, quotes or ideas.

Created by University Library Service, Cardiff University, 2006.

Citing photos, images or works of art

If you are using someone else’s photograph, image or work of art, then you must cite it.

  • Click HERE to for a flowchart that guides you through the options in NoodleTools.
  • Click HERE for a guide on images that are born digitally.
  • Click HERE for a list of different types of born-digital materials.

Tip – If you find the image through Google, the original source for the image won’t be Google. It will be another website. To find the original source for the image, click “Visit Page”, usually found on the right side of the image. (If the word Google appears in the URL on your Refences page, then it’s probably the wrong source!)


NoodleTools & OWL

  1. NoodleTools is an online citation website that will help you keep track of all your sources and create a References page for you. You might need to register the first time you use NoodleTools. After that you should save your information so then you don’t need to register again. Click HERE for the steps of what you need to do to register.
  2. EVERYTHING you want to know about referencing and citation can be found on this website: OWL Purdue Online Writing Lab. This site is current and has examples of how to cite different sources using MLA.

In-text citations

In-text citations should show exactly where you  have used others’ ideas and words.  In-text citations point the  reader to the source on the References page. Click HERE for a three minute vide on in-text citations.

Direct quotations and paraphrasing

Introduce any direct quotations or paraphrase with the name of the author and also include the page number. Look carefully at the punctuation.

#Short direct quotes are framed with quotation marks and followed by the page number/s in parentheses at the end of the quote.

Jasmine Rekaf states that “MLA8 has changed to help students cite electronic resources with greater ease” (24).

#OR you can paraphrase. Don’t use quotation marks when you paraphrase.

Jasmine Rekaf believes that when it comes to citing sources, the new MLA8 is a better fit in our digital age (24).

#If you don’t use the author’s name to introduce the quoted or paraphrased material, then put the author’s last name and page number in parentheses at the end of the quote or paraphrased material.

The new MLA8 has been developed to allow for the huge range of electronic sources students now access (Rekaf 24).

#You would find the following entry in the References page:

Rekaf, Jasmine. How to reference. Penguin, 2016.


Page numbers

  • If your citation comes from two page numbers or a range of page numbers list all the numbers, example: 51-59.
  • If page numbers have three digits and the first digit is the same in both repeat only the final two, example: 254-57.
  • If your source has no page numbers but has other reference numbers (eg paragraphs, chapters or sections) the use those instead. Put the abbreviation before the number, example (Smith, par. 3), (Jones, pars. 7-9), (Brown, ch. 4), (White, chs. 24-29), (May, sec. B), (June, secs. 5-7).
  • If there are no numbers or any other kind of reference numbers, then your citation may just contain the author’s name.



The first time a person’s name is used in a sentence for the in-text citation then us his or her full name as it appears in your source. Don’t include academic degrees or titles. The next time you refer to the person, use only his/her last name.

ONLY use the last name in the parenthesis. No initials. (You can use initials if it’s the only way to differentiate between two sources.)


Examples of in-text citations

** Click HERE for different examples of how you can cite the same information. **Scroll down for MLA.

More detailed and comprehensive examples of in-text citations can be found HERE.


Signal words & phrases you can use for in-text citations:
according to; acknowledges; advises; agrees; allows; believes; claims; comments; compares; concludes; concurs; confirms; contends; criticizes; declares; denies; disagrees; discusses; disputes; emphasizes; expresses; endorses; from; grants; illustrates; implies; in the words of researchers ** and **; interprets; insists; lists; notes; objects; observes; offers; opposes; points out; reasons; refutes; rejects; remarks; replies; reports; responds; reveals; says; suggests; states; thinks; writes.


Citing indirect sources

An indirect source is a source that is cited in another source. Always, try to find the original source; however if you can’t find it then use “qtd. in”.

Example: Smith argues that schools “need to change with the times” (qtd. in Brown 331).
Then you also have to list the indirect source in your list of references. With the above example, both Brown and Smith would be included in the list of reference.

Click HERE for another example.


Citing tables

Tables – If you are using someone else’s data (and not your own original data) then you must include a source citation with the table. Tables should be labelled table, include a title, source information (if it’s not your own work) and a note.

For more information on how to cite figures, go to OWL Purdue Online Writing Lab. Scroll down to the Tables and Tables Example section or go to the MLA Style Centre website.

Citing figures


Including them in your work

Figures are all visuals or illustrations that are not tables or musical scores. Examples include maps, drawings, photographs, graphs, charts, images, artwork, logos.

When citing figures, then use the following steps:

  1. Write the text that explains the figure. Include the figure in your work as close as possible to the text you have written.
  2. Label the illustration Fig. and then give it a number.
  3. Include a caption or title or description.
  4. Include the word from.
  5. Include source information or citation for source the figure was found in. Please note that if you provide source information with your illustrations, then you do not need to provide this information on the Reference page.
  6. Place the information underneath illustration. 

—– Example —-

NoodleTools is an online citation website. Fig 1. shows the NoodleTools logo. It was founded in 1999 to help students organise their research and create accurate citations. Since it’s inception, NoodleTools has served millions of students.





Fig. 1. NoodleTools Logo from: NoodleTools. “NoodleTools Logo.” 2017 NoodleTools, 2017, www.noodletools.com/downloads/. Accessed 27 Aug. 2017.


For more information on how to cite figures, go to OWL Purdue Online Writing Lab. Scroll down to the Figures and Figures Example section or take a look at this Lib Guide.



A reference page is normally placed at the end of research paper, project, or presentation. When creating a reference page, you should:

  • place your references on a separate page at the end of your paper, with the next page number and your header;
  • centre “References” at the top of the page. You do not need quotation marks, italics, or underlining;
  • make sure Entries are alphabetical;
  • use a hanging indent format for each citation;
  • use double spacing;
  • not leave a line between entries.
  • check your punctuation carefully;
  • use the same font as the one you used in your paper; and
  • not number or use bullet points for each entry.

Please note that if you use NoodleTools, the References page is created in the correct format. Remember to change the heading of the page from “Works Cited” to “References” and then add the References page to your assignment.

Annotated References

Sometimes you might have to include annotations with each source. That means as you list the books, articles, and documents you have used, you need to add a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph about the source. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited.

Your annotation should include:

  • a summary of the text;
  • an evaluation of the text; and
  • a reflection on how it applies or is relevant to your own research.

1. Click HERE for more information on annotations from NoodleTools. This link includes questions which you can use to help you write your annotation.

2. Click HERE for an example of an annotated bibliography (references) from OWL.

3. Click HERE for information from Cornell University Library.

*Your references must be annotated for the Extended Essay. 

Plagiarism & Citation

Basic intros…

A brief introduction on citations for beginners. Watch this video to learn about plagiarism, why you have to cite and basic citation rules.

A basic explanation of plagiarism.

Watch this video to learn about paraphrasing so that you don’t plagiarize.

Click HERE for some tips on paraphrasing. (Note: The Works Cited information at the bottom of the tips page does not follow the current MLA8 format.What should it look like if it was following the MLA8 format?)

For those Harry Potter fans, take a look at Kate Hart’s infographic A magical guide to avoiding plagiarism to learn about the difference between paraphrasing and plagiarism.

You can find videos and quizzes on citing sources, plagiarism and paraphrasing in BrainPOP. The login information can be found in the LIS Research Portal.

Now for something more in-depth …

Complete the following modules on plagiarism by The Library UC San Diego.

You won’t receive course credit for completing the modules but you will learn a lot about plagiarism, paraphrasing & citation.

You also have to be patient with these videos. You have to listen to all the audio and can’t skip ahead.

Click HERE for Module 1 – Define

Can you answer the following questions?

  • What is plagiarism?
  • What is common knowledge?

Click HERE for Module 2 – Prevent

Can you answer the following question?

  • What is paraphrasing?

Click HERE for Module 3 – Cite

Can you answer the following questions?

  • What is citation?
  • Which citation style do we use at our school?

Still want more? 

Take a look at the University of Texas at Austin’s information about plagiarism.

Click HERE for a video that shows real life consequences of plagiarism as well as definitions of what plagiarism is and some examples of plagiarism.

Click HERE to watch a video that explains when to cite, quoting and paraphrasing and note taking.

Creative Commons Licenses

Have you seen the following image on some resources and wondered what it means?

 It’s a Creative Commons copyright license. This tells you what the creator of the resource lets you do with their resource.

  • Click HERE for a information about Creative Commons and how you can use it.
  • Click HERE for the information about the Creative Commons copyright licenses and what they mean.
  • Click HERE to search Creative Commons resources.